
Shor’s Algorithm
Shor’s Algorithm is a quantum algorithm developed by mathematician Peter Shor in 1994 that efficiently solves two important problems in number theory: integer factorization and discrete logarithms. These problems form the basis of the security of many widely used cryptographic systems, such as RSA (for encryption) and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). On a sufficiently powerful…

Quantumsafe Algorithms
Quantumsafe algorithms (also known as postquantum cryptographic algorithms) are cryptographic algorithms designed to be secure against attacks by quantum computers. These algorithms aim to protect data from the potential threats posed by the powerful computational abilities of quantum computers, which could break many of the cryptographic systems used today. Quantum computers leverage the principles of…

HashBased Encryption Algorithms
A hashbased encryption algorithm refers to a cryptographic technique that uses hash functions in conjunction with encryption processes. While hash functions themselves do not perform encryption (since they are oneway functions), they are often used as part of encryption systems to ensure data integrity, verify identities, or create cryptographic keys. In cryptography, hash functions are…

Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT)
Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) is a property of distributed systems that allows them to reach consensus even if some participants (nodes) are acting maliciously or failing to function properly. This concept is derived from the Byzantine Generals Problem, which illustrates the challenge of achieving agreement among participants when some may send…

Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)
The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) is a cryptographic algorithm used to generate digital signatures, which ensures the authenticity, integrity, and nonrepudiation of digital messages or transactions. It is based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), making it more efficient than other signature algorithms like RSA by offering strong security with smaller key sizes. How…

Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC)
Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is a form of publickey cryptography that is based on the mathematics of elliptic curves. It provides strong security while using much smaller keys compared to traditional methods like RSA. This makes ECC efficient in terms of both computation and bandwidth, which is why itβs widely used in modern cryptographic systems,…

Ed25519
Ed25519 is a highperformance, secure, and efficient publickey signature system based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). It is specifically designed to provide strong security guarantees while being fast and easy to implement, making it a popular choice for digital signatures in modern cryptographic applications. Key Features of Ed25519: How Ed25519 Works: Use Cases of Ed25519:…

Optimistic Rollups
Optimistic Rollups on Cardano are a Layer2 scaling solution designed to improve the network’s scalability by enabling offchain transaction execution while maintaining the security guarantees of the Layer1 (Cardano’s main blockchain). This technology allows for more efficient transaction processing, particularly for smart contracts and decentralized applications (dApps), by shifting most of the computational work offchain.…

Input Endorsers
Input Endorsers on Cardano are part of a planned optimization to improve the blockchain’s scalability and transaction throughput. This concept aims to separate the process of transaction validation from block production, allowing for greater parallelism and efficiency in how transactions are handled. Hereβs how Input Endorsers work and their significance: In summary, Input Endorsers are…

NonInteractive Proofs of ProofofStake (NIPoPoS)
NonInteractive Proofs of ProofofStake (NIPoPoS) are cryptographic protocols designed to allow a party (the prover) to demonstrate to another party (the verifier) that a certain blockchain is following a valid proofofstake (PoS) protocol without requiring interaction between the two parties or access to the entire blockchain history. NIPoPoS are particularly useful in situations where a…