
The Blockchain Trilemma
The Blockchain Trilemma refers to a concept in blockchain development that suggests there is a tradeoff between three key properties: decentralization, scalability, and security. According to this trilemma, it is challenging for a blockchain to fully optimize all three of these properties simultaneously. Instead, developers often have to make compromises and prioritize two at the…

Quantumsafe Algorithms
Quantumsafe algorithms (also known as postquantum cryptographic algorithms) are cryptographic algorithms designed to be secure against attacks by quantum computers. These algorithms aim to protect data from the potential threats posed by the powerful computational abilities of quantum computers, which could break many of the cryptographic systems used today. Quantum computers leverage the principles of…

HashBased Encryption Algorithms
A hashbased encryption algorithm refers to a cryptographic technique that uses hash functions in conjunction with encryption processes. While hash functions themselves do not perform encryption (since they are oneway functions), they are often used as part of encryption systems to ensure data integrity, verify identities, or create cryptographic keys. In cryptography, hash functions are…

VoteBased Consensus Method
A votebased consensus method is a type of consensus algorithm used in distributed systems or blockchains, where nodes in the network participate by voting to agree on a common decision. Each node has a “vote” that it casts in favor of a particular block or transaction, and the network reaches consensus when a certain number…

Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT)
Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) is a property of distributed systems that allows them to reach consensus even if some participants (nodes) are acting maliciously or failing to function properly. This concept is derived from the Byzantine Generals Problem, which illustrates the challenge of achieving agreement among participants when some may send…

Hot & Cold Storage
Hot storage and cold storage are terms used to describe different methods of storing cryptocurrencies, primarily based on whether the wallet is connected to the internet or not. Each has different security implications, with hot storage being more convenient but potentially riskier, and cold storage being much more secure but less accessible. Hot Storage Hot…

NonCustodial Wallet
A noncustodial wallet is a type of cryptocurrency wallet where the user has full control over their private keys and, therefore, complete ownership of their funds. Unlike a custodial wallet, where a third party holds and manages the private keys (such as an exchange or service provider), a noncustodial wallet puts the responsibility of security…

Custodial Wallet
A custodial wallet is a type of cryptocurrency wallet where a third party (such as an exchange or financial service provider) holds and manages the private keys on behalf of the user. In other words, the user does not have direct control over the private keys, which are necessary to access and manage their cryptocurrency.…

Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)
The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) is a cryptographic algorithm used to generate digital signatures, which ensures the authenticity, integrity, and nonrepudiation of digital messages or transactions. It is based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), making it more efficient than other signature algorithms like RSA by offering strong security with smaller key sizes. How…

Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC)
Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is a form of publickey cryptography that is based on the mathematics of elliptic curves. It provides strong security while using much smaller keys compared to traditional methods like RSA. This makes ECC efficient in terms of both computation and bandwidth, which is why it’s widely used in modern cryptographic systems,…