
Factoring (Mathematics) in Cryptography
In mathematics, factoring (or factorization) refers to the process of breaking down a mathematical object, such as a number or a polynomial, into a product of smaller or simpler objects, called factors, that when multiplied together yield the original object. Factoring of Numbers For integers, factoring refers to expressing a number as the product of…

Decentralized Identity (DID)
Decentralized Identity (DID) refers to a concept and technology that allows individuals or organizations to have control over their digital identities without relying on a centralized authority. It leverages blockchain and other decentralized technologies to enable secure, selfsovereign identity management, giving users ownership of their personal data and how it is shared with others. Key…

RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman)
RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) is one of the most widely used publickey cryptosystems, primarily for secure data transmission. It is based on the mathematical difficulty of factoring the product of two large prime numbers, which is the foundation of its security. RSA is used for both encryption and digital signatures, and its security comes from the computational…

Schnorr’s Signature
Schnorr’s signature is a type of digital signature scheme used in cryptography, known for its simplicity, efficiency, and strong security properties. It was invented by ClausPeter Schnorr and is based on the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem, making it both fast and secure for certain cryptographic operations. Key Features: How it works: Schnorr’s signature…

Know Your Customer (KYC)
KYC, or “Know Your Customer,” is a process used by financial institutions to verify the identity of their clients and assess their potential risks, primarily to prevent illegal activities like money laundering, fraud, and terrorist financing. This process usually requires customers to submit personal identification documents (e.g., passport, utility bills), which are then verified by…

Permissioned & Permissionless systems
Permissioned and Permissionless systems are two types of blockchain architectures that determine how participants can access, interact with, and contribute to the network. The key difference lies in who is allowed to participate and how control is managed across the network. Permissioned Blockchain Systems A permissioned blockchain restricts participation to a predefined group of entities.…

SelfSovereign Identity (SSI)
SelfSovereign Identity (SSI) is a concept in digital identity management that allows individuals or entities to have full control and ownership over their personal data and digital identities without relying on a centralized authority. With SSI, individuals can manage their identity independently, securely store personal data, and selectively share only the necessary information with third…

Popular Types of Blockchain Attacks
Several types of attacks can target blockchains, aiming to exploit vulnerabilities in the consensus mechanisms, network, or cryptographic protocols. Below is an overview of the most common and significant attacks that occur in blockchain environments: 1. 51% Attack (Majority Attack) 2. Sybil Attack 3. DoubleSpend Attack 4. Eclipse Attack 5. DDoS Attack (Distributed Denial of…

Network Time Protocol (NTP)
Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol used to synchronize the clocks of computers and devices across a network. It ensures that the system clocks of multiple machines, regardless of geographic location, remain in sync with each other. This is critical for many applications, such as logging events, coordinating processes, or ensuring security mechanisms function…

Shor’s Algorithm
Shor’s Algorithm is a quantum algorithm developed by mathematician Peter Shor in 1994 that efficiently solves two important problems in number theory: integer factorization and discrete logarithms. These problems form the basis of the security of many widely used cryptographic systems, such as RSA (for encryption) and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). On a sufficiently powerful…